Here’s an illustration showing the gradual evolution of gigantism in the sub-family Tyrannosaurinae over the course of about 12 million years. Note than the species depicted aren’t necessarily directly ancestral/descended from one another, but are instead intended to be representative of the evolutionary trend observed within this clade.
I hope that you find this both interesting and informative!
References are listed at the end of this post.
Lythronax argestes ~80Ma
The stratigraphically oldest and debatably one of the most basal Tyrannosaurines, the 7 metre long Lythronax may seem fairly unimpressive next to its much larger descendants – but all of the basic features of its later kin are present. Most notable of these is the extreme widening of the skull towards the back due to an outward flaring of the jugals (cheekbones) – leading to a larger area in which jaw muscles could attach. This culminated in a much more powerful bite than other predatory dinosaurs (including other Tyrannosaurids) and is a diagnostic feature of the sub-family Tyrannosaurinae.
Daspletosaurus torosus ~77-74Ma
The 9 metre, 2.5 tonne Daspletosaurus actually shared its environment with the similarly large but more gracile Tyrannosaurid genus Gorgosaurus, but despite what may have been the case with their ultimate descendants (see Tyrannosaurus), the two genera do not appear to have been in direct competition. This situation is a testament to what made the two major branches of Tyrannosauridae different – the more gracile Albertosaurines (of which Gorgosaurus is a member) were likely better adapted to hunting more nimble prey such as Hadrosaurs, and the Tyrannosaurines were inversely more suited to tackling larger more powerful animals such as Ceratopsians.
Tarbosaurus bataar ~70Ma
Tarbosaurus is perhaps the first truly gigantic Tyrannosaurine, with a body length of about 10 metres and a mass of 4 tonnes. This Asian genus shares a branch of the subfamily Tyrannosaurinae with the stratigraphically younger Tyrannosaurus, and may be a directly ancestral taxon to the latter.
Tarbosaurus also represents a migration in massive derived Tyrannosaurines from North America to Asia sometime during the late Campanian – Early Maastrichtian, suggesting that sea levels in the latest Cretaceous were lower (or at least less static) than has previously been suggested (this would also explain many similarities in Asian and North American late Cretaceous fauna).
Tyrannosaurus rex ~68-66Ma
Measuring in at 12 metres in length and 7 tonnes in mass, Tyrannosaurus is the largest and most derived member of the subfamily Tyrannosaurinae, as well as being the most famous. While Tyrannosaurus can ultimately trace its evolutionary history back to North America, recent studies suggesting possible direct descendance from the Asian Tarbosaurus imply that Tyrannosaurus was actually an invasive genus. It’s therefore likely that Tyrannosaurus may have contributed to the downfall (and ultimate extinction) of diverse Tyrannosaurids and other predators abundant in North America prior to its arrival.
The stratigraphically oldest Tyrannosaurus rex specimens are extremely large and robust, but it is highly likely that the species slightly decreased in body size throughout the Late Maastrichtian, transitioning into a more gracile animal just prior to the K-Pg boundary. Some have even go so far as to claim that this transition actually represents the genus Tyrannosaurus branching into multiple different species over the course of ~2 million years (as opposed to the singular species T.rex), but a formal study investigating these ideas has yet to be published.
Brusatte, SL and Carr, TD (2016) The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs. Sci. Rep. 6, 20252; doi: 10.1038/srep20252
Loewen MA, Irmis RB, Sertich JJW, Currie PJ, Sampson SD (2013) Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79420. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420
Paul, GS (2016) The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs 2nd Edition. Princeton University Press
Can people please stop using Sue to represent all members of it's species?
i was referring to a Stan based UCMP 118742 silly
I'd wager that a mass of 8 tonnes is probably close to the upper bounds of an "average" adult Tyrannosaurus, with only exceptionally large individuals such as FMNH PR 2081 exceeding it. (The value I originally quoted at best represents the lower bound).
Yeah, those ankles have been really bugging me recently. I think the erroneously long appearance of them may also be due in part to the fact that I've under-muscled them to quite an extent.
I don't personally think there's that much difference in size between Tyrannosaurus and Tarbosaurus, but "size matters" are actually more "delicate" things than most people think. Thus, that difference doesn't compromise the quality of your job.
It's fair to say that I'm definitely being somewhat conservative with the general size of Tarbosaurus. There are definitely individuals (such as the holotype) that do approach the size of Tyrannosaurus.
Since huge Hadrosauridae of over 12 meters in length could be found both in North America and China/Mongolia/Russia, and since we know that Tyrannosaurus hunted such preys, I think it's fairly reasonable to say that also in China/Mongolia/Russia there were Tyrannosaurinae of the same size of T. rex; if not T. bataar itself, a very close relative of this genus.
I always found the differences between Tyrannosaurus and Tarbosaurus a really interesting matter: the two probably had different life habits and hunting techniques because of those differences.
And because Tarbosaurus it's actually slightly "older" than its American cousin, it could even represent an earlier evolutive stage of Tyrannosaurus (though this is highly speculative, IMHO).
The woman is actually about 6 foot. Apparent scaling issues here are simply due to perspective/viewpoint - this isn't drawn from a technical plan view, it's drawn from a "real world" perspective of a rendered 3D scene. Therefore it's definitely not a suitable image to take measurements from, nor is it intended to be.
To get a better idea of how big everything in this image actually is, see this plan view render of the draft 3D scene: orig05.deviantart.net/464e/f/2….
The woman is scaled to the 6 foot red pole. I can guarantee that no relative sizes were changed in any way before the reference image for this illustration was rendered from the 3D camera. Also, please bear in mind that the 3D scene is just a draft used to setup the approximate sizes and shapes, and not a final interpretation of the exact proportions of the animals.
Also; ıt could be an awesome pet to ride to a battle
Though I'd imagine that an attempt to ride one would result in severe loss of limb
Oh; that would be severe
But could be worth it to think that person will be portrayed as The Tyrannosaurus rider/tamer
Only cute predators I could think're Mammalian ones; Like Wolves (yes I think wolves're adorable), Lions, Dingos and such.
tyrannosaurs are my favorite dinosaur species and it makes me happy to see them drawn in such a great way
Me and brolyeuphyfusion9500 have done GDI of both CM 9380 and AMNH 5027 using a high fidelity mathematical script, and they seem to cluster around 7 tonnes (CM 9380 was between 7150 kgs (the result broly got) 7600 kg (the result I got)) and AMNH 5027 massed at 6950 kgs aprox, which is the same result another deviant here (blaze) got. Futhermore, Hutchinson et al had CM 9380 mass at 7400 kgs, and bates et al stimated the mass of BHI 3033 at a similar number. Hutchinson et al also had minimal model for Sue at 9500 kgs in mass.
(Being less conservative, I find Hartman's GDI analysis to be most agreeable, and suspect that the computational analysis of Hutchinson et al. 2011 leads to figures that are a little too large, in part due to overall scaling errors that can result from the way the digitally scanned mounts are actually mounted. Hutchinson et al. do however quote 6000kg as their minimum mass for adult Tyrannosaurus in general, so the mass quoted here is agreeable with their paper if taken as a minimum.)
GSP figures are not only minimum but also he has not done vollumetric stimates for any T rex specimen that isn't AMNH 5027, and his AMNH 5027 skeletal is just plain wrong, while the scanned mount of it and Scott's restoration of AMNH 5027 is 11.8 m long, his AMNH 5027 is horribly compressed and barely pushes 10.5 meters.
Most stimates of 6 tonnes as an upper bound for Tyrannosaurus are based of allometry equations on femur length.
I think I alredy told you about the stimates that I myself made but since you seem to ignore them...
If you want another GDI that puts Tyrannosaurus above 8 tonnes, here:
Re-reading my description, I realised that I had initially misphrased it and quoted 6 tonnes as an upper bound - a mistake on my part, this was not the intention.
The mass estimate I've given reflects the lower bounds of the general mass range in adult Tyrannosaurus as quoted by Hutchinson et al. 2011 in their abstract (which does still agree with Paul's most recent minimal figure, despite possible flaws in Paul's methodology) :
"...we conclude that adult T. rex had body masses around 6000–8000 kg, with the largest known specimen (“Sue”) perhaps ∼9500 kg."
While I do have some issues with the study (as already mentioned), I find it mostly agreeable.
FYI: Your GDI results that cluster around 7 tonnes seem reasonable to me.
Quoting a range does seem to be the better option in hindsight.
The scene is based on a draft 3D render - all of the models in which were precisely scaled. The Lythronax is about 2 metres at the highest point of the hip, making the woman ~1.8 metres tall. For reference, the Tyrannosaurus in this scene is 12 metres long. Any apparent issues in scale that may arise are simply due to perspective (The animals are standing in a slight diagonal line relative to camera position).